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2021年中国毒情形势报告

2022-10-23 10:36| 发布者: Apolo| 查看: 72742| 评论: 0|来自: 网络转载

摘要:   前  言  2021年,中国禁毒部门认真贯彻习近平总书记关于禁毒工作重要指示精神和党中央、国务院决策部署,统筹推进禁毒重点整治、示范城市创建和农村毒品治理等中心工作,围绕“清源断流”战略,持续加大打击 ...

  前  言

  2021年,中国禁毒部门认真贯彻习近平总书记关于禁毒工作重要指示精神和党中央、国务院决策部署,统筹推进禁毒重点整治、示范城市创建和农村毒品治理等中心工作,围绕“清源断流”战略,持续加大打击整治工作力度,全年共破获毒品犯罪案件5.4万起,抓获犯罪嫌疑人7.7万名,缴获毒品27吨,查处吸毒人员32.6万人次,同比分别下降16.3%、16.7%、51.4%和23.6%。通过一年努力,全国毒情整体向好态势继续得到巩固拓展,呈现境外毒品输入数量和国内制毒产量“双减”,国内毒品供应量和流通量“双降”,毒品走私贩运和制毒物品流失问题得到遏制,毒品滥用规模和涉毒犯罪案件连续多年下降的良好态势。同时,受百年变局和世纪疫情影响,全球毒品产量居高不下,毒品网上交易更加活跃,毒品滥用人数持续上升,中国禁毒斗争面临的外部环境更加复杂,国内毒情形势出现新情况新变化。

  毒品滥用

  经过广泛开展禁毒宣传教育和推进吸毒人员“平安关爱”行动,国内毒品滥用规模日趋缩小。截至2021年底,全国现有吸毒人员148.6万名,同比下降17.5%;戒断三年未发现复吸人员340.3万名,同比上升13.4%;新发现吸毒人员12.1万名,同比下降21.7%。现有吸毒人数和新发现吸毒人数连续5年下降,毒品滥用治理成效持续显现。

  ——滥用人数持续减少。在现有吸毒人员中,滥用海洛因55.6万名、冰毒79.3万名、氯胺酮3.7万名、大麻1.8万名,同比分别下降19%、18.5%、9%和10.7%。据各地开展城市污水中毒品成分监测结果显示,海洛因、冰毒、氯胺酮等3类滥用人数较多的主流毒品消费量普遍大幅下降。

  ——滥用品种更加多样。受毒品供应和流通数量“双降”影响,国内主流毒品价格居高且普遍掺假,毒品买不到、吸不起、纯度低成为普遍现象,部分吸毒人员减量降频,或寻求麻精药品和非列管物质进行替代,或交叉滥用非惯用毒品以满足毒瘾。氟胺酮和合成大麻素年内列管后,查处滥用人数呈先升后降态势。部分地区还发现吸食含依托咪酯、美托咪酯的“烟粉”和“烟油”、含天然阿片类物质的“卡痛叶”等替代物质。

  ——滥用替代物质危害显现。一些人滥用毒品替代物质后,出现狂躁症状甚至诱发精神障碍或心血管疾病,存在引发肇事肇祸风险。一些不法分子利用具有镇静、催眠、麻醉作用的精神药品制成“迷奸水”“听话水”,实施强奸、猥亵等犯罪活动。

  毒品来源

  国内缴毒总量持续下降,境外毒品仍是主要毒源。全年缴获海洛因、冰毒、氯胺酮等3类滥用人数较多的主流毒品17.3吨,其中来源境外15.3吨、国内囤积或制造2吨,同比分别下降21.7%和48.2%,分占缴获总量的88.6%和11.4%。

  一、境外毒品渗透

  ——“金三角”地区仍是我国最主要毒源地。全年缴获海洛因1.81吨,同比下降52.1%,其中来自“金三角”地区1.78吨、“金新月”地区22公斤,分占缴获总量的98.8%和1.2%。缴获冰毒15吨,同比下降29.3%,其中来自“金三角”地区13.4吨,占缴获总量的89.3%。

  ——南美地区可卡因向我国走私中转依然较多。全年缴获可卡因690公斤,同比上升18.6%,主要来自南美地区,多藏匿在船舶和集装箱中经我国过境中转,以大宗案件居多。

  ——北美地区大麻向我国输入大幅增加。全年缴获境外大麻308.9公斤,同比上升4.5倍,主要来自北美地区,多通过国际邮包量少、次多、分散入境,涉及我国23个省份。

  二、国内毒品制造

  ——毒品制造活动继续萎缩。通过持续推进“除冰肃毒”专项行动,创新完善全链条打击模式,国内制毒活动延续萎缩态势。全年摧毁制毒窝点123个,缴毒1.2吨,同比分别下降26.4%和89%。规模化制毒活动得到遏制,缴获毒品公斤级以下的案件70起,占64.2%,10公斤以上案件6起,占2.2%,未发生50公斤以上制毒案件。少数省份制毒活动零星偶发,呈现出选址隐蔽、规模小型、分段加工、多点合成等特点。

  ——制毒物品流失不断减少。通过持续推进制毒物品清理整顿,完善麻精药品管理机制,国内制毒物品流失得到有效防控。全年破获制毒物品案件230起,缴获制毒物品1282吨,同比分别下降25.1%和45.1%。不法分子为逃避法律监管,对毒品合成路径进行改进,寻求非列管化学品用于制毒。

  毒品贩运

  通过持续推进“净边”“集群打零”“寄递渠道禁毒百日攻坚”等专项行动,国内毒品贩运活跃程度大幅降低。全年破获走私、贩卖、运输毒品案件4.1万起,抓获犯罪嫌疑人6万名,缴获毒品21.4吨,同比分别下降12.9%、12.8%和51.5%。贩毒分子改变运毒渠道、藏毒手法,更多采用受疫情影响小、被查获风险低的贩毒模式。

  ——邮路和水路渠道贩运增多。全年破获邮路贩毒案件3741起、水路贩毒案件18起,同比分别上升24.2%和63.6%。因国内毒品供应减少和疫情影响,传统渠道毒品贩运活动大幅减少,邮路、水路受影响较小,水路特别是海上贩毒活动以大宗毒品案件居多,东南沿海地区接连破获多起海上贩毒大案。

  ——外籍和外流贩毒人员减少。外籍人员在华涉毒犯罪骤减,全年抓获外籍贩毒嫌疑人264名、占抓获总数的0.4%,同比下降43.8%;抓获外流贩毒人员0.9万名,占抓获总数的15.9%,同比下降16.7%,西南边境和东南沿海为主要流入地。

  ——网上和网下交织更为紧密。全年破获网络贩毒案件0.5万起、抓获犯罪嫌疑人0.8万名、缴毒0.5吨,分占全国总数的9.2%、10.4%和2%。毒品市场继续向线上延伸,更多采用钱毒分付、人物分离交易模式,“互联网+物流寄递”非接触式贩毒手法增多。勾连交易由大众聊天工具向小众社交工具、二手交易平台、游戏平台甚至暗网发展;毒资流转由网上银行转账向虚拟货币和游戏币扩展;运送毒品由“大宗走物流、小宗走寄递”向大宗毒品交专业团队组织运输、小量毒品交未严格执行实名制要求的寄递公司代送演变。

  结  语

  2022年,中国禁毒部门将继续坚定担当责任、忠实履职尽责,积极适应疫情防控常态化条件下的毒情形势发展变化,紧紧围绕做好党的二十大安保维稳主题主线,统筹发展安全两件大事、国内国际两个大局、网上网下两个战场,坚持下先手棋、打主动仗,坚持整体发力、系统治理,深入推进“清源断流”等专项行动,全面深化各项禁毒工作措施,不断完善中国特色毒品治理体系,最大限度防控涉毒风险隐患,努力巩固拓展毒情形势整体向好的局面。

  China Drug Situation Report 2021

  Foreword

  In 2021, China's narcotics control authorities coordinated and carried forward the rectification of critical drug-affected areas, creation and demonstration of model cities, as well as tackling drug problems in rural areas. Relentless efforts were made to implement strategies to address the root causes of drug demand and drug supply while launching operations to combat drug-related crimes. The year 2021 saw 54,000 drug-related cases solved in China, 77,000 suspects arrested, 27 tons of drugs seized and 326,000 persons identified as using drugs, down by 16.3%, 16.7%, 51.4% and 23.6% respectively year-on-year. With the joint efforts throughout the year, the overall drug situation kept improving, featuring decline in the amount of drugs trafficked into China, decrease of domestic drug manufacture and supply, and curbed drug trafficking and illicit diversion of precursor chemicals. Moreover, the scaling down of drug abuse and drug-related crimes had been seen for many years. Due to the evolving global situation and Covid-19, drug production around the world remained high, online drug transactions was more active, and the number of drug abusers continued to rise. In this context, China's drug situation experienced some new changes and challenges.

  I. Drug abuse

  Thanks to extensive drug prevention education and the Campaign "Care for Drug Users", the scale of drug abuse kept shrinking down. As of the end of 2021, there were 1.49 million registered drug users nationwide with a year-on-year decrease of 17.5%, 3.4 million people who didn't relapse for more than three years after withdrawal, an increase of 13.4% year-on-year, and 121,000 newly discovered drug users, down by 21.7%. The fact that the number of registered drug users and newly discovered drug users had declined for 5 consecutive years continued to show the achievements made in addressing drug abuse problems.

  - The number of drug users continued to decline. Among the registered drug users, 556,000 were using heroin, 793,000 using methamphetamine, 37,000 ketamine and 18,000 cannabis, down by 19%, 18.5%, 9% and 10.7% respectively. The result of waste water analysis demonstrated that the consumption of three types of mainstream drugs, namely heroin, methamphetamine and ketamine, had dropped significantly.

  - Diversified drugs were abused. Affected by the decline in drug supply and trafficking, prices of domestic mainstream drugs surged and adulteration happened frequently. Drugs were often unavailable, at high prices or with low purity. Therefore, some drug users had to use less drugs, reduce the frequency, seek alternative narcotics/psychotropic drugs or non-scheduled substances, or become poly-drug users. Since the scheduling of fluoroketamine and synthetic cannabinoids in 2021, the number of identified users first increased and then declined. In some areas, alternative substances such as tobacco powder and e-liquid containing etomidate and metomidate, and kratom leaf containing natural opioids were also found.

  - The harm of alternative substances abuse emerged. Public safety would have been affected by incidents caused by users of those substances with manic symptoms, even mental disorders or cardiovascular diseases. Some criminals used psychotropic drugs with sedative, hypnotic and anesthetic effects to make "rape water" and "obedient water" to commit rape, molestation and other criminal activities.

  II. Drug sources

  Drug seizures in China continued to decline with most of the drugs coming from abroad. In 2021, 17.3 tons of most commonly used drugs, such as heroin, methamphetamine and ketamine, were seized nationwide, of which 15.3 tons came from overseas, 2 tons from domestic stock or manufacture, down by 21.7% and 48.2% respectively, accounting for 88.6% and 11.4% of the total seizure.

  1. Overseas drug sources

  - The "Golden Triangle" area remained China's main drug origin. In 2021, 1.81 tons of heroin were seized, a year-on-year decrease of 52.1%, of which 1.78 tons came from the "Golden Triangle" area and 22 kilograms from the "Golden Crescent" area, accounting for 98.8% and 1.2% of the total seized. In addition, 15 tons of methamphetamine were seized, a year-on-year decrease of 29.3%, of which 13.4 tons were from the "Golden Triangle" area, accounting for 89.3% of the total seized.

  - Cocaine from South America was often smuggled into or made transit in China. The year 2021 saw a seizure of 690 kilograms of cocaine, an increase of 18.6% year-on-year. The bulk of cocaine was mainly from South America, destined to other countries and mostly hidden in vessels and containers.

  - Cannabis from North America increased significantly. In 2021, 308.9 kilograms of overseas cannabis were seized, an increase of 450% year-on-year. The cannabis was trafficked into 23 provinces in China mainly through small international parcels at high frequency form North America.

  2. Domestic drug manufacture

  - Domestic drug manufacturing activities continued to wind down. This was the result of the continued special operations targeting drug manufacture and striking on all its aspects. In 2021, 123 drug clan labs were destroyed with 1.2 tons of drugs seized, down by 26.4% and 89% year-on-year respectively. Large-scale drug production activities were curbed, with each drug seizure of less than 1 kilogram in 70 cases (64.2%) , over 10 kilograms each in 6 cases (2.2%), and zero case over 50 kilograms. A few provinces saw sporadic drug production activities with the characteristics of covert location, small scale, distributed processing, and multi-point synthesis.

  - Diversion of precursor chemicals declined. The diversion of precursor chemicals in China has been effectively curbed through continuous promotion of precursor management and improvement of narcotics and psychotropic substances control. In 2021, 230 cases involving precursor chemicals were solved with 1,282 tons of precursors seized, a year-on-year decrease of 25.1% and 45.1% respectively. In order to evade legal supervision, criminals updated the synthesis routes and sought for non-scheduled chemicals to make drugs.

  III. Drug trafficking

  Through the continuous advancement of operation Border Clearing, disruption on the supply chain of drug retailing, cracking down on drug delivery via mail and logistics, etc., drug trafficking activities in China has been greatly reduced. The year 2021 saw 41,000 drug smuggling, trafficking, and transportation cases solved nationwide, with 60,000 offenders arrested and 21.4 tons of drugs seized, down by 12.9%, 12.8% and 51.5% year-on-year respectively. Drug traffickers adjusted their modus operandi and used drug trafficking models that were less affected by the pandemic and with a lower risk of being discovered.

  - Trafficking through postal and waterway channels increased. In 2021, 3,741 drug trafficking cases by mail and 18 cases by water were solved, an increase of 24.2% and 63.6% respectively year-on-year. Due to the reduction of domestic drug supply and the impact of the Covid-19, drug trafficking through traditional channels was greatly reduced, while postal services and waterways frequently exploited. Several such cases involving waterways, especially maritime drug traffic in large amounts of drugs, were solved in China's southeastern coastal areas.

  - Number of foreign and migrant drug traffickers declined. In 2021, 264 foreign suspects were arrested for drug-related crimes, accounting for 0.4% of the total, down by 43.8% year-on-year, and 9,000 migrant drug traffickers arrested, mostly in China's southwest border and southeast coast areas, accounting for 15.9% of the total with a year-on-year decrease of 16.7%.

  - Online and offline drug trafficking were more closely intertwined. There were 5,000 cases of online drug trafficking in 2021, with 8,000 suspects arrested and 500 kilograms of drugs seized, accounting for 9.2%, 10.4% and 2% of the national totals. The drug market continued to expand online featuring separate delivery of money and drugs, drug dealers not selling drugs in person, and non-contact Internet+logistics drug trafficking, etc. Drug transactions shifted from mass chat tools to niche social tools, second-hand trading platforms, game websites and the darknet. Drug-related capital transfers expanded from online banking system to virtual and game currencies. Criminals started to deliver bulk drugs by hiring professional teams and took advantage of logistic companies who did not strictly follow the real-name mailing regulation to send small amounts of drugs.

  Afterword

  In 2022, China's narcotics control agencies will continue to carry out their mission and fulfill their responsibilities, adjust measures to meet the challenges posed by the evolving drug situation and the Covid-19, continue to address the root causes of drug demand and supply, stick to the principle of comprehensive and systemic approaches, enhance all-out tactics, improve the drug control mechanism with the Chinese characteristics, prevent and control drug-related risks, and strive to consolidate the improvement of drug situation and expand its coverage in China.


来源:网络转载

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